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Kidney Stones


Kidney stones or renal calculi (from Latin ren, renes, “kidney” and calculi, “pebbles”[1]) are solid concretions or calculi (crystal aggregations) formed in the kidneys from dissolved urinaryminerals.


File:Nefrolit.jpg Nephrolithiasis (from Greeknephros, “kidney” and λιθoς (lithos, “stone”)) refers to the condition of having kidney stones. Urolithiasis refers to the condition of having calculi in the urinary tract (which also includes the kidneys), which may form or pass into the urinary bladderUreterolithiasis is the condition of having a calculus in the ureter, the tube connecting the kidneys and the bladder. The term bladder stones usually applies to urolithiasis of the bladder in non-human animals such as dogs and cats.

There are several types of kidney stones based on the type of crystals of which they consist. The majority are calcium oxalate stones, followed by calcium phosphatestones. More rarely, struvite stones are produced by urea-splitting bacteria in people with urinary tract infections, and people with certain metabolic abnormalities may produce uric acid stones or cystine stones.

The diagnosis of a kidney stone can be confirmed by radiological studies or ultrasound examinationurine tests and blood tests are also commonly performed. When a stone causes no symptoms, watchful waiting is a valid option. In other cases, pain control is the first measure, using for example non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs oropioids.







Preventive strategies include dietary modifications and sometimes also taking drugs with the goal of reducing excretory load on the kidneys:[2][23]

  • Drinking enough water to make 2 to 2.5 liters of urine per day.
  • A diet low in proteinnitrogen and sodium intake.
  • Restriction of oxalate-rich foods, such as chocolate, nuts, soybeans,[24] rhubarb and spinach, plus maintenance of an adequate intake of dietary calcium. There is equivocal evidence that calcium supplements increase the risk of stone formation, though calcium citrate appears to carry the lowest, if any, risk.
  • Taking drugs such as thiazidespotassium citratemagnesium citrate and allopurinol, depending on the cause of stone formation.
  • Some fruit juices, such as orange, blackcurrant, and cranberry, may be useful for lowering the risk factors for specific types of stones. Orange juice may help prevent calcium oxalate stone formation, black currant may help prevent uric acid stones, and cranberry may help with UTI-caused stones.[25][26]
  • Avoidance of cola beverages.[27][28]
  • Avoiding large doses of vitamin C.[29]

For those patients interested in optimizing their kidney stone prevention options, a 24 hour urine test can be a useful diagnostic.[citation needed]




  1. ^ Collins, C. Edward (2005). A Short Course in Medical Terminology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0781747678.
  2. a b c d Parmar, Malvinder S. (2004). “Kidney stones”. British Medical Journal 328 (7453): 1420–1424. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7453.1420PMID 15191979.
  3. a b Weaver, S. H.; Jenkins, P. et al. (2002). “Chapter 14: Renal and Urological Care”. Illustrated Manual of Nursing Practice (3rd ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 1582550824.
  4. ^ Mayo Clinic (2008). “Kidney Stone Channel”. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
  5. ^ Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Fausto, Nelso; Robbins, Stanley L.; Abbas, Abul K.; Cotran, Ramzi S. (2005). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Saunders. pp. 1012. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1.

January 27, 2010 - Posted by | Blood, Cells, Kidney, Pancreas

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