Your Health Consultant

You can only live once, make it useful & colorful

Obesity / Over-Weight & Under-Weight:

Obesity / Over-Weight / Under-Weight:

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.[1][2] Body mass index (BMI), a measurement which compares weight and height, defines people as overweight (pre-obese) if their BMI is between 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2, and obese when it is greater than 30 kg/m2.[3]

Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breathing difficulties during sleep, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.[2] Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive dietary calories, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.[4][5]

Dieting and physical exercise are the mainstays of treatment for obesity. Moreover, it it important to improve diet quality by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber (Bhargava and Guthrie, 2002; Bhargava, 2006). To supplement this, or in case of failure, anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption. In severe cases, surgery is performed or an intragastric balloon is placed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to earlier satiation and reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.[6][7]

Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century.[8] Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was widely perceived as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history, and still is in some parts of the world.[2][9]

Classification

Main article: Classification of obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health.[1] It is defined by body mass index (BMI) and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist–hip ratio and total cardiovascular risk factors.[10][11] BMI is closely related to both percentage body fat and total body fat.[12]

A front and side view of a "super obese" male torso. Stretch marks of the skin are visible along with gynecomastia. 

A “super obese” male with a BMI of 47 kg/m2: weight 146 kg (322 lb), height 177 cm (5 ft 10 in)

In children, a healthy weight varies with age and sex. Obesity in children and adolescents is defined not as an absolute number, but in relation to a historical normal group, such that obesity is a BMI greater than the 95th percentile.[13] The reference data on which these percentiles are based are from 1963 to 1994, and thus have not been affected by the recent increases in weight.[14]

BMI Classification
< 18.5 underweight
18.5–24.9 normal weight
25.0–29.9 overweight
30.0–34.9 class I obesity
35.0–39.9 class II obesity
≥ 40.0 class III obesity

BMI is calculated by dividing the subject’s mass by the square of his or her height, typically expressed either in metric or US “customary” units:

Metric: BMI = kilograms / meters2
US customary and imperial: BMI = lb * 703 / in2

where lb is the subject’s weight in pounds and in is the subject’s height in inches.

The most commonly used definitions, established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1997 and published in 2000, provide the values listed in the table at right.[3]

Some modifications to the WHO definitions have been made by particular bodies. The surgical literature breaks down “class III” obesity into further categories whose exact values are still disputed.[15]

  • Any BMI ≥ 35 or 40 is severe obesity
  • A BMI of ≥ 35 or 40–44.9 or 49.9 is morbid obesity
  • A BMI of ≥ 45 or 50 is super obese

As Asian populations develop negative health consequences at a lower BMI than Caucasians, some nations have redefined obesity; the Japanese have defined obesity as any BMI greater than 25[16] while China uses a BMI of greater than 28.[17]

 

Effects on health

Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.[2] As a result, obesity has been found to reduce life expectancy.[2]

Mortality

Relative risk of death for men (left) and women (right) in the United States by BMI.[18]

Obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide.[8][19][20] Large-scale American and European studies have found that mortality risk is lowest at a BMI of 22.5–25 kg/m2[21] in non-smokers and at 24–27 kg/m2 in current smokers, with risk increasing along with changes in either direction.[22][23] A BMI above 32 has been associated with a doubled mortality rate among women over a 16-year period.[24] In the United States obesity is estimated to cause an excess 111,909 to 365,000 death per year,[2][20] while 1 million (7.7%) of deaths in the European Union are attributed to excess weight.[25][26] On average, obesity reduces life expectancy by six to seven years:[2][27] a BMI of 30–35 reduces life expectancy by two to four years,[21] while severe obesity (BMI > 40) reduces life expectancy by 10 years.[21]

 

 

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b WHO 2000 p.6
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Haslam DW, James WP (2005). “Obesity”. Lancet 366 (9492): 1197–209. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67483-1. PMID 16198769.
  3. ^ a b WHO 2000 p.9
  4. ^ Kushner, Robert (2007). Treatment of the Obese Patient (Contemporary Endocrinology). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. pp. 158. ISBN 1-59745-400-1. http://books.google.com/?id=vWjK5etS7PMC&pg=PA121&lpg=PA121&dq=measurement+of+metabolism+in+obese+Bessesen. Retrieved April 5, 2009.
  5. ^ a b Adams JP, Murphy PG (July 2000). “Obesity in anaesthesia and intensive care”. Br J Anaesth 85 (1): 91–108. doi:10.1093/bja/85.1.91. PMID 10927998. http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/85/1/91.
  6. ^ NICE 2006 p.10–11
  7. ^ a b Imaz I, Martínez-Cervell C, García-Alvarez EE, Sendra-Gutiérrez JM, González-Enríquez J (July 2008). “Safety and effectiveness of the intragastric balloon for obesity. A meta-analysis”. Obes Surg 18 (7): 841–6. doi:10.1007/s11695-007-9331-8. PMID 18459025.
  8. ^ a b Barness LA, Opitz JM, Gilbert-Barness E (December 2007). “Obesity: genetic, molecular, and environmental aspects”. Am. J. Med. Genet. A 143A (24): 3016–34. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32035. PMID 18000969.
  9. ^ a b c d e Woodhouse R (2008). “Obesity in art: A brief overview”. Front Horm Res 36: 271–86. doi:10.1159/000115370. ISBN 9783805584296. PMID 18230908. http://books.google.com/?id=nXRU4Ea1aMkC&pg=PA271&lpg=PA271&dq=Obesity+in+art:+a+brief+overview.
  10. ^ Sweeting HN (2007). “Measurement and definitions of obesity in childhood and adolescence: A field guide for the uninitiated”. Nutr J 6: 32. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-32. PMID 17963490. PMC 2164947. http://www.nutritionj.com/content/6/1/32.

 

November 26, 2010 - Posted by | Blood, Intestines, Liver, Pancreas, Stomach | , , ,

1 Comment »

  1. Obesity is showing an increasing tendency and obese and overweight people have to realize that their lives are at risk and their lives will be shortened, adding serious risks to their health. Surgery should be considered as a last option for extreme cases of obesity, but never be shy or embarrassed to ask for medical help concerning your weight issues. There are professionals, dietitians, physical therapist, nutritionists and even psychologists who can help.

    Comment by LA Bariatrics & Diabetes Patients | May 2, 2012 | Reply


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: